In recent years, there has been an upsurge of planting fruit tree in nursery pots, such as potted apple tree. Although apples are a very common fruit, few people have planted apple trees. Growing apple trees in pots is the perfect combination of gardening and bonsai art. It can not only enjoy the fun of planting flowers, but also get the joy of fruit harvest.
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Generally speaking, any type of apple can be grown in containers (with certain exceptions). You'll find that dwarf varieties are easier to manage because they don't require staking or pruning. Some varieties of apple trees are better suited for container growing than others. Choose dwarfing or semi-dwarf varieties rather than standard-sized trees, which can reach 20 feet tall or more. Dwarf trees typically grow to between 4 and 6 feet tall, while semi-dwarf trees grow up to 10 feet tall.
If you plant an apple tree in a container, it may not grow as large or bear as much fruit as one planted in the ground. But if you live where the ground freezes, or don't have a lot of space for a tree, growing your own apple tree in a container might work for you. It's a beautiful thing to think about. Here are some tips for planting apple trees in pots.
Apple trees can grow to more than 5 meters. Even the dwarf apple trees planted in the current orchard should grow to three meters. Therefore, when buying apple tree in pot, we should pay attention to the variety selection. Potted apple trees must be dwarf, with strong roots, short branches and strong self pollination ability.
The apple tree varieties that can be selected for reference include Yinu, longevity fruit, winter red fruit, etc. At present, there are mainly two kinds of potted varieties: Hanfu and Hanxiang. The Hanfu varieties have the characteristics of cold resistance, large fruit and beautiful fruit shape. The Hanxiang varieties have the characteristics of fruity aroma and bright and beautiful peel color.
Generally speaking, the small apple trees we grow are bought directly from the orchard or flower market. The planted seedlings must be strong, free from diseases and pests, and full of buds and eyes on the branches. Only such seedlings can adapt to the new environment and resume growth faster.
What size planter do I need for an apple tree? The size of apple tree pots should be determined according to the specific situation. Generally, the pots for apple trees with larger and deeper body is selected. The apple tree planter is best to choose a round pot. The pot size for apple tree should be about 40-60 cm.
Although the potted apple trees we bought has been matched with planter, if the original pots is not suitable for the growth, we should replace a new pot. Apple trees have strong vitality and can easily grow more luxuriant. Therefore, in the early stage of cultivation, apple flower pots that are conducive to root growth and more drainage and ventilation should be selected.
There should be several finger sized holes at the bottom of the apple tree planter to drain and ventilate, which is conducive to root growth. The volume of the apple tree pots should also be large, so that the apple tree planter can provide sufficient nutrition and space for the growth and ensure the normal growth in the later stage.
It is necessary to prepare suitable soil for apple tree in pot. For young tree bought from the market, the existing pot soil can generally meet the growth needs. But if the apple tree is not growing well, it is necessary to replace some pot soil, or add some nutrient soil to the plant pots for apple trees. Soil is the source of nutrition. Due to space constraints, the nutrition of pot soil must be sufficient, and the soil must meet the growth needs.
When any plant is cultivated, the soil must be loose and breathable, and potted apple trees are no exception. In addition, the drainage performance should be ensured, and the best potting soil for apple trees with high humus content is appropriate. Generally, select some fertile soil, add some river sand or rotten leaf soil, and then add an appropriate amount of vermiculite and perlite as cultivation soil to provide sufficient conditions for the growth.
The pH value of nutrient soil is best controlled at 5.4 ~ 6.5. When preparing soil, local materials can be used: 5 parts of fertile garden soil, 2 parts of screened cinders, 2 parts of rotten stable manure, 1 part of rotten sawdust and bone powder fermentation fertilizer, and then add 10g potassium dihydrogen phosphate to mix evenly and screen in proportion, and then put it into the apple tree pots to ensure the nutritional needs.
The most suitable potting time is before budding in spring. It is usually planted in the middle of March in spring. Select seedlings with strong plants, full bud eyes and no diseases and insect pests, and plant them in apple tree planters before budding in spring. Before growing apple trees in containers, soak the root system with diluted stone sulfur mixture, and the root ball should be soaked as much as possible, which is very important, because once planted, it will be difficult to soak it completely.
Before growing apple trees in pots, properly trim the root system, cut off some necrotic roots, and cut the long lateral roots short to promote them to grow fibrous roots. Keep useful fibrous roots as far as possible. Cut about 20cm long fibrous roots and trim them neatly, so that apple tree in pot can grow new roots. Then spray the root system with carbendazim to prevent disease infection.
It is best to cultivate seedlings by themselves, and select grafted seedlings with strong plants, full bud eyes and no diseases and pests. When growing apple trees, put several pieces of broken tiles on the hole at the bottom of the apple tree pots, put a layer of coarse sand, add some nutrient soil, place the roots evenly, and then add enough nutrient soil for compaction. After planting, it is necessary to immediately water the apple tree to absorb enough water and restore its growth as soon as possible.
After the apple tree has grown for 2 ~ 3 years, it is necessary to replace the apple tree pots and the new nutrient soil at the same time, so as to avoid the loss of nutrients in the soil for too long, resulting in poor growth. At this time, the old soil should be poured out of the apple tree pots in time, the old roots and unsightly big roots on the surface of the soil should be removed, and the action should be light when putting it back into the pots for apple trees, so as to prevent the root system from being damaged again and affect the growth.
① After the original soil absorbs mineral nutrients for a long time, the plant shows the symptoms of lack of elements, or the physical properties of the pots soil become worse, the ventilation becomes worse, and the apple tree grows poorly, the original apple plant pot can be used to replace the culture soil.
② The apple tree is too large, and the original pots soil is no longer suitable for the requirements of plant growth. It is necessary to expand the soil volume, improve the water absorption area of the root system, and replace it with a larger apple flower pot.
③ Apple trees grow older in pots. The root system grows cross in the planter, crowding each other and intertwined, affecting the growth of new roots and significantly weakening the ability to absorb nutrients. At this time, it is necessary to replace the apple tree pots, add appropriate management, and properly trim the root system, so as to rejuvenate and renew the root system and enhance the growth and fruit of the tree.
④ When it is found that there are diseases and insect pests in the root system of apple plant in pot, the root system shall be trimmed, and the apple tree pots shall be replaced in combination with the prevention and control of diseases and insect pests.
It can be carried out in spring and autumn. In autumn, it should be carried out after the autumn shoot of potted apple tree stops growing and before the third growth peak of root system appears.
The principle of no or less root injury should be followed. The specific operation method depends on the size of the apple tree pots. If the diameter is less than 40 cm, when changing the soil, you can hold the base of the plant with your left hand, tap the tree planters wall with your right hand, then disengage the apple tree pots, and pull up the apple tree and the soil with both hands.
If the apple tree planter is large, it is best to pour water 2 days ago, then bind the tree crown with a rope, carefully turn the bucket horizontally, and tap the cylinder wall to separate the pots soil from the pot wall. Then one person holds the cylinder mouth tightly with both hands, and the other pulls out the plant with force.
Potted apple trees are suitable for growing in a humid environment, so the watering management is very important. Only with proper watering and fertilization can grow well. Generally speaking, the watering frequency and interval of potted apple trees should be determined according to the season, climate and soil humidity.
In summer when the weather is dry and hot, it is suitable to water every day. When the water evaporation is large in the high-temperature season in summer, water every morning and evening. When watering in spring, autumn and winter, watering shall be carried out according to the situation of pots soil, and watering shall be carried out once every 1 ~ 2 days. In rainy season, no water or less water can be used. In case of continuous rainfall, timely drainage is also required, and the apple tree pots shall be moved to the rain shelter.
Family apple tree should be watered according to the principle of "see dry and see wet, pour thoroughly" to avoid watering and half cutting off water every day. Water should be replenished in time during germination, flowering and fruit expansion. In order to promote flower bud differentiation, water should be properly controlled in June, and less watering should be done in the rainy season from July to August. During the dormancy period, watering should be strictly controlled to ensure that the pot soil is not dry.
In short, indoor apple tree should maintain a certain humidity of the pot soil during the growth period, and water it in time after it is dry, but it should not be too wet. When you see that the soil is dry, you should water it in time. Just water the soil thoroughly. Don't use heavy water or repeat watering. At the same time, when watering, water can be poured into the soil at regular intervals, and water can be sprayed into the plant with a watering can at other times.
Before enters the pot, a layer of base fertilizer can be laid on the bottom of the apple tree planter, which can make the rotten organic fertilizer, so that the amount of fertilizer can be reduced in the early stage of growth. At ordinary times, pay attention to topdressing in time. Generally, topdressing is carried out every two weeks or so. You can use bean cake rotten fertilizer, and the amount should not exceed 100g.
When fertilizing apple tree in planter, appropriate fertilization is mainly carried out according to the leaves and fruits, so as to ensure the growth needs. When growing apples in pots, you can put some farm manure such as chicken manure and pig manure; You can also buy some compound fertilizer and put it in the soil. Fertilization should be mainly organic fertilizer, supplemented by quick acting fertilizer, based on the principle of less application for many times, combined with topdressing outside the root.
When sprouting in early spring, apply the sprouting promoting fertilizer dominated by nitrogen fertilizer once, apply 4 ~ 5g urea to each apple tree planter, and irrigate in time after application. Spray 0.1% borax solution at the peak of flowering. Starting from May, liquid fertilizer will be applied once every 10 days, mainly 200 times liquid organic cake fertilizer, supplemented by 0.2% inorganic liquid fertilizer such as urea, diammonium and ammonium sulfate.
More phosphorus and potassium fertilizer is needed in the fruit expansion stage, and the effect of applying liquid fertilizer on the root and leaf is better. The root is mainly applied with farmyard fertilizer, mainly with the water soaked in cake fertilizer (bean cake and peanut cake) after full fermentation, diluted 20 times, poured into the planter for apple tree, and then poured with a small amount of water.
At the same time, the foliar fertilizer can be sprayed with 0.2% urea solution in the early stage and 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution for 2 ~ 3 times when the fruit begins to color in the later stage, so as to promote fruit maturity, branch enrichment and flower bud differentiation.
Generally, one month before apple fruit harvest, an appropriate amount of leaf fertilizer can be sprayed, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate, ferrous sulfate and urea can be sprayed according to the dilution ratio to promote fruit growth. For the last fertilization in September, the compound fertilizer of less hydrogen and potassium can be applied on the pot soil, and the well is topdressed with 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.3% urea to ensure the nutrient supply. Fertilization can be suspended in winter.
Growing apples in containers have different requirements for nutrients at different stages of growth, so different fertilizers need to be selected according to different stages during maintenance. It is necessary to provide best compost for apple trees in pots. When bloom or bear fruit, it is necessary to provide phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer to help plant fruits mature as soon as possible.
In addition to bearing fruit, potted apple trees also have a certain ornamental shape. Therefore, in shaping the shape of potted apples, you can trim the shape according to your preference, such as semicircle, long triangle, upright multi branch, etc. When pruning the shape, pay attention to the large angle of the branches, so that the branches have a certain growth space, which is conducive to the flowering and Fruiting.
The apple trees in pots should be trimmed in time and the height should be controlled. From the beginning of a year, the height of the tree crown should be controlled. Generally, the winding branch pulling method is used to inhibit its growth, or the annual seedlings are removed to promote the growth of the main branches, which can speed up the germination of new shoots.
One or two days after the seedlings are moved into the apple tree pots, attention should be paid to pulling the branches and opening the corners to make the tree ventilated and transparent, so as to facilitate the formation of flower buds and obtain early fruit and high yield. During pruning, the apple branches shall be shortened to stimulate axillary bud germination and form a compact small crown tree shape.
The first fruit tree bears fruit by long, medium and short branches and terminal buds. After entering the fruiting stage, 2 ~ 3 full buds at the base can be cut again according to the strength of growth. For long branches, it can be reduced to 2 natural branches to make the distribution of small and medium fruiting branches in the tree crown compact.
At the same time, the way of winding and pulling branches is adopted to inhibit the growth of the tree and promote the development of new branches. The branches pumped in that year are picked to strengthen the trunk and produce new branches again. Twists, pinches, cuts and girdles of bare branches and competitive branches combined with pulling branches can cultivate a large number of fruiting branches and promote them to form flower buds, so as to achieve the purpose of early fruiting and multi fruiting.
The tree shape can adopt folding fan, which is suitable for both arbor rootstock type and short branch type varieties. The basic structure is as follows: there are four main branches in the whole tree, which are bent horizontally on both sides, and the tree height can be controlled at about 80cm.
The process is as follows: after planting the seedlings with a height of about 100cm, pull them into a horizontal shape, select a full and good bud on the back of the bend, and engrave it above the bud to promote the extraction of the second layer of main branches. At the same time, the buds below the engraved bud should be wiped out in time.
For the new shoots drawn from the main branches, the method of pulling and dropping branches shall be adopted for the upright prosperous and long branches to make them in a horizontal or drooping state. Pay attention to the cultivation and protection of the second layer of main branches after cutting to make them in an upright and vigorous growth state.
In the following winter, flatten the new main branch of the apple tree in the opposite direction of the first main branch, select a good bud at the bend of the branch, and cut it above it. After that, cultivate the third, fourth and fifth main branches in the same way every year. The spacing between the main branches on the same side is about 50cm. Each main branch is equipped with small and medium-sized fruiting branch groups. After entering the full fruit stage, retract the first main branch year by year, and finally leave four main branches.
Potted apple trees have a high demand for light in the growth process, especially in the fruit growth period. Appropriate light can improve the quality of apples. Insufficient light will cause the leaves to fall and the plants to grow in vain. Therefore, it is necessary to provide sufficient light for the plants in the process of maintenance.
For indoor bonsai, the apple tree pots needs to be placed by the sunny window, and for outdoor maintenance, it needs to be placed in an environment with sufficient light. Apple trees are more suitable for planting in the north. They have strong cold resistance and generally bloom around May. Because most apple varieties have low self flowering and seed setting rate, cross pollination of pollen between different varieties is needed to produce more fruits.
Pollen can be collected for artificial pollination, high grafting of flower branches can also be carried out, or at least two potted plants that are pollinated with each other can be purposefully placed together. The artificial pollination time should be 2 ~ 3 days before Apple flowering. The pollinated flowers should be taken from orchards with similar phenological periods to obtain pollen. In the morning of the day when the potted apple flowers bloom, the brush dipped in the pollen and touched the stigma of the flowers.
Most apple trees have the characteristics of poor self flowering or low self flowering seed setting rate. The fruit setting rate can be improved by grafting pollination branches, artificial pollination and boron spraying at flowering stage. For apple trees with large amount of flower buds and many fruit sets, strict flower and fruit thinning shall be carried out. The quality of potted fruit and ornamental fruit can be improved by bagging.
Planting apple tree in pot also pays attention to pest control Generally speaking, the pests include aphids, red spiders, etc. when you see these pests, you should pay attention to spraying some insecticides on the apple tree. You can choose pesticides with low residues, or some pepper water, alkaline water, tobacco leaf water, etc., which can effectively prevent diseases and pests from harming the plant.
At the same time, you can apply fertilizer appropriately to ensure vigorous growth and more results. Usually I see pests on the leaves, but I also catch them in time. In terms of prevention and control, we should adhere to the principle of "prevention first, combination of prevention and control, physical prevention and control first, chemical prevention and control supplemented".
In case of diseases and pests, timely remove the diseased branches, fruits and leaves, scrape the diseased spots and catch the pests manually. In case of serious diseases and insect pests, you can choose to spray 800 times of 70% methyltobuzin wettable powder or 500 times of 65% mancozeb wettable powder to prevent diseases and insect pests. 2.5% chlorpyrifos 1800 times solution and 20% baijipu 2000 times solution were used to control aphids, red spiders and other pests.
When feeding apple trees in pots, it is necessary to provide them with appropriate pots soil. It is best to choose apple tree planter with good air permeability and soil with rich nutrition for planting. At the same time, it is necessary to provide apple trees with appropriate light and water during the maintenance process to maintain the normal growth of plants. Different fertilizers are also required at different stages of growth.