As one of our favorite fruits, lemon is naturally the first choice for indoor potted fruit trees. While watching the green leaves, it can also harvest fruits, killing many birds with one stone. So, how to growing lemon trees in pots? Now the cultivation methods of potted lemon trees are introduced as follows.
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Lemon tree is a small evergreen tree belonging to citrus of Rutaceae. The leaf blade is small, long elliptic, and the leaf margin is serrulate. The flowers are solitary, open all year round and have a strong aroma. The fruit is long oval or oval, mature in autumn and winter. The peel is yellow, the pulp is extremely sour and fragrant, the juice is citric acid, and the peel can extract lemon oil.
For human body, lemon can delay aging, precipitate pigment, resist bacteria and inflammation, generate saliva and relieve summer heat, and improve intestines and stomach. It can not only beautify and beautify, but also be used as medicine to treat diseases. It can be said that often eating lemon is very good for the human body.
Of course, you can also extract juice to relieve your thirst in the summer heat. The yellow lemon can also be used to decorate our house for viewing. Pruning, fertilization and changing lemon flower pots are indispensable links in the process of growing lemons in pots, which directly affect the growth and ornamental.
1. Best pot for lemon tree
First of all, we have to prepare a lemon plant pot with appropriate size and good material. However, different lemon tree species have different requirements for planting depth, so the depth of lemon flower pots is also different. The depth of the lemon tree planter often depends on the suitable planting depth. When potted lemon trees are equipped with pot, we should determine the planting depth according to their growth habits and the depth of their roots.
Lemon tree is a tree species with well-developed roots, which belongs to deep root plants. Therefore, when we planting, we not only need to choose a deeper pot for lemon tree, but also need to plant deeply to ensure that the plant can quickly return to normal growth after moving into the lemon tree planter. Moreover, due to the developed root system, its root system will basically cover the whole lemon plant pot after being raised in the lemon planter pot for 1-2 years, so as to reduce the respiratory capacity of root system and the ability to germinate new roots.
In this way, the absorption capacity and efficiency of lemon tree roots will be greatly reduced, and the soil will gradually harden after 1-2 years of use, and the nutrients will be very scarce. If the lemon tree pot is not changed in time, it will inevitably affect the normal growth. Therefore, the lemon plant in pot generally needs to change lemon tree planter pot once every 1-2 years, but it needs to be combined with root pruning.
Because the root system is developed and deep, we need to plant deeply, so the depth of the selected pot for lemon tree is very important. Especially for the adult plants with vigorous growth, their roots are more developed, and the lemon tree planter need to be replaced regularly. For the lemon tree pot, if it is a seedling, you can choose lemon tree pot size with a diameter of about 20cm and a depth of about 25cm. However, if it is an adult plant, the lemon plant pot needs to be selected according to the size of the plant. But one thing is that the best pot for lemon tree should be deep enough, which is more suitable for lemon trees to take root and distribute their roots.
For lemon trees over 3-4 years old, large pot for lemon tree with a diameter of 30-32cm and a depth of about 35-40cm are usually selected. In fact, the size and depth of the lemon tree pot and the growth state of the plant also play a certain role. We should configure best planter for lemon trees, which should not be too large or too small. The depth must be deeper. However, when considering the caliber and depth, it is mainly selected according to the size and height of lemon trees and planted as deeply as possible.
2. Growing lemon trees in pots
Lemon trees are cultivated in large quantities in the south, so they should be grafted and propagated; The cultivation amount in the north is small, mainly using cutting method, and the grafted seedlings of lemon tree can also be purchased for cultivation. Lemon tree roots have high requirements for water, nutrients and soil. Potting soil for lemon tree should be prepared into permeable and breathable, water and fertilizer retaining, slightly acidic culture soil.
The time of planter pot for lemon tree loading and changing can be in autumn and early spring, which can be flexibly controlled according to the local climate. Lemon trees love breathable planter pot. It's best to use some large planter for lemon tree with good air permeability, which is conducive to the growth of plants. Lemon trees don't have much requirements for soil, and pH is acidic.
Lemon trees have developed roots and grow fast. Especially in the vigorous growth period, turn the lemon tree planter once a year or two. When repotting, remove half of the original soil, shorten the long roots and cut off some too dense roots. Put bone meal or animal hoof pieces at the bottom of the lemon plant pot and add some new culture soil.
When the lemon tree is in the small seedling stage, it is recommended that you use lemon planter pot with a diameter of about 20-25cm. According to the growth, you can replace larger pot for lemon tree and new culture soil from March to April every year. The lemon tree cultivated in pot should be loose, fertile and slightly acidic soil with good drainage function. The mixed soil of perlite, vermiculite, garden soil, peat soil and gravel can be used, and an appropriate amount of organic fertilizer or slow-release fertilizer for lemon trees in pots can be added at the bottom of the lemon tree planter as the base fertilizer.
Potted lemon trees must be turned over from March to April in spring. If the pot for lemon tree is too small, it can be replaced with a suitable lemon tree pot. If the lemon planter pot is still suitable, the original lemon plant pot can be replaced with new soil. When changing the lemon tree planter pot and soil, base fertilizer should be applied. Lemon plant in pot have limited nutrient supply due to the lack of soil.
After many years, due to the lack of soil fertility, lemon trees will weaken year by year, bloom less and bear little fruit. In order to keep the lemon tree blooming and bearing fruit every year, we must repotting lemon tree. The best time to turn the pot is half a month before the germination of lemon trees.
Before repotting lemon tree, first prepare a 2 gallon plant pot that is larger than a 1 gallon plant pot, remove the lemon tree from the planter pot without breaking the mud mass, cut off the 1-2 cm thick surface soil along the mud mass, cut off the dead roots and rotten roots, cut off the 1 cm thick soil at the bottom of the mud mass, and take out the tiles on the bottom of the lemon tree planter trapped in the soil.
The drainage hole of the new lemon planter pot shall be laid with tiles. First lay a drainage layer with a thickness of 2 or 3 cm, and then lay a layer of nutrient rich culture soil with a thickness of 4 or 5 cm, mixed with a small amount of calcium superphosphate. Then put the soil into the planter pot, fill the culture soil around to the mouth of the lemon plant pot, slightly compact the soil, pour enough root fixing water, place it in a ventilated and semi shady place, and put it back in place after a week for daily management.
3. Light and temperature
Lemon trees are light loving plants, but if the sun is too strong, they will grow poorly. Generally, lemon trees need to be replaced at noon. The annual average temperature suitable for growth is above 15 ℃, and the best growth temperature is 23 ℃ to 29 ℃. If it exceeds 35 ℃, it will stop growing, and - 2 ℃ will be damaged by freezing. Lemon trees generally do not need to cool down in summer. They can enter the room before frost and leave the room after Qingming, so they can survive the winter safely.
Lemon tree is a plant that likes warm environment. It has strong cold resistance, but it can not be lower than - 2 ℃. Keep the temperature of lemon trees above 5 degrees in winter. After the lemon tree blooms and before fruit bearing, when the temperature exceeds 30 ℃ at noon, it should be shaded for about 3 hours, otherwise it will affect the normal flower shape and hinder the fruit bearing.
Family potted lemon trees should be placed on the sunny roof or balcony before planting. As long as it can be well and stably exposed to the sun for a long time, it is the best position. Lemon trees need to be exposed to sufficient light to produce large and good fruits. They should be exposed to light for at least 5-6 hours every day.
4. Watering lemon trees in pots
Lemon trees need enough water, especially in summer, but do not let the lemon tree planter bottom accumulate water. Reduce watering in late autumn and winter to avoid affecting plant differentiation and germination. The soil of the lemon planter pot should be kept moist, but there should be no ponding. From summer to early autumn, when the weather is hot, we should often spray water around the lemon tree plants, and less water in winter.
In order to prevent the excessive growth of summer shoots, and at the same time, the lemon tree body should accumulate nutrients and promote the formation of flower buds, the potted lemon tree should be "drained" before summer heat. The specific method is to gradually reduce the water supply to potted lemon trees more than ten days before the summer; The water supply was stopped in the first 5 days, and the lemon tree planter pot soil was dried after being exposed to the sun; Due to the lack of water in the root system, the branches and leaves lose water, and the leaves shrivel and curl.
In order to prevent leaf dehydration, water can be sprayed on the leaf surface early and late, and a small amount of water can also be sprayed on the lemon tree planter soil, so that the lemon tree is in the condition of drought and no death. Instead, its axillary buds expand day by day, and the bud color changes from green to white.
When most axillary buds change from green to white, the "water deduction" can promote flower success. At this time, the water supply for potted lemon trees should be restored in time. Potted lemon tree on balcony should be watered every 3-4 days in the growing season. The watering should be permeable, but there should be no ponding. When the flowering period is coming, the water should be controlled to ensure the fruit setting rate.
5. Fertilizer for lemon trees in pots
Lemon trees like fertilizer and should apply more thin fertilizer at ordinary times. Apply the decomposed liquid fertilizer to the lemon tree before germination, and then apply the liquid fertilizer dominated by nitrogen fertilizer every 7 ~ 10 days to promote the lemon tree to grow branches and leaves and spring shoots. The lemon tree should be fertilized in time after picking the heart every time to promote the branches to mature early.
During the growth, you can sprinkle some cake fertilizer in the lemon tree planter, so that some fertilizer seeps into the soil every time you water, so as to enhance fertility. The fruit bearing time of lemon trees is in spring and summer every year. During the fruit period, the amount of fertilizer should be properly controlled, and some nutrient solution should be sprayed on the leaves every two weeks.
The mature potted lemon trees should be pruned in time and protected by scaffolds. After autumn, fertilization is reduced to avoid excessive nutrition of lemon trees, promote autumn shoots, and compete with fruits for nutrients, resulting in fruit drop. The growth of lemon tree needs enough fertilizer. During the growth period, apply more thin fertilizer and less frequent fertilizer.
If the growth is not good, apply more fertilizer several times. For fertilization, when growing lemon trees in pots, put an appropriate amount of base fertilizer into the bottom of the lemon planter pot, apply rotten organic liquid fertilizer once every month in the growing season, and 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate once every 40 days.
6. Pruning lemon trees in pots
There are two reasons for the pruning of potted lemon trees. First, the lemon plant pot is small, the soil is less, and the nutrients provided are limited, which can not meet the growth needs, so they must be pruned; Second, through shaping and pruning, adjust the rational distribution of nutrients in lemon trees, so that limited nutrients can be concentrated to supply buds and leaves, and form more fruiting branches, so as to achieve full branches of flowers and fruits.
Lemon tree care in pot is generally divided into winter pruning and summer pruning. Winter pruning should be based on the principle of "deleting density, leaving sparse, removing weak and retaining strong", and cut off dead branches, short and weak branches and bare long branches without initial empty effect. Summer pruning mainly cuts the long branches on the fruitless tree, erases the summer branches on the fruiting tree, and shortens the decaying branches in the middle and upper part of the periphery of the crown.
Patio lemon tree must be intensively pruned before spring shoot germination, first removing dead branches, diseased branches, bare branches, inward branches, Cross branches, sprouting branches, etc. Cut the strong branches weakly and leave 4 or 5 full buds; Weak branches are strongly cut, leaving 2 or 3 buds to promote more robust spring shoots on each branch. After the spring shoots are long, in order to control the excessive growth of lemon trees, light cutting can be carried out, and 3 and 4 sections of branches and shoots can be cut off. The new shoots growing later will pick the heart when there are 6 ~ 8 knots, in order to induce more summer shoots.
7. Flower promotion and fruit preservation
Lemon tree is a tree species that blooms and bears fruit all the year round, while most lemon tree in the North bloom and bear fruit in spring. Therefore, after the growth of autumn shoots stops, watering lemon trees in pots must be controlled. When both sides of the leaves begin to roll in, water them appropriately to promote flower bud differentiation. Pay attention to fertilizing in the pot for lemon tree and spraying fertilizer on the leaves to cultivate strong fruiting mother branches.
In spring, when the temperature is about 15 degrees, you can move them outdoor. If you give small lemon tree in pot more sun, it can appear flowers and bones. At this time, we should give meyer lemon in pot enough phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, because the lemon tree has a lot of flowers, and we should apply it once a half month. Potassium diammonium phosphate or fish intestines and fish scale water retted by ourselves are used to exchange and supplement fertilizer for lemon trees.
The lemon tree blooms very fragrant, but if you want the lemon tree to bear fruit, you must pollinate the large potted lemon tree. Pollination is best carried out in the morning. The pollen activity in the morning is relatively large. Pass the pollen on the stamen to the pistil and brush it gently. Without pollination, lemon trees will bear little or no fruit. Artificial pollination is an important measure for lemon trees to bear more fruits.
Pollination is best carried out in time after the petals grow. This work is carried out around 9 o'clock every morning, and the effect is good. After pollination, it will bear small lemons one by one after flower withers. At this time, it is still necessary to supplement best fertilizer for potted lemon tree dominated by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The pot for lemon tree is often sprinkled with multi-element slow-release fertilizer, or phosphorus potassium fertilizer and multi-element fertilizer, which can be used alternately to ensure the flowering and Fruiting and the healthy growth of lemon trees.
The tips for growing lemon trees in pots: first, strengthen the supply of fertilizer and water and accumulate nutrients; Second, artificial pollination; Third, thinning flowers and fruits. Lemon fruit is large and needs more nutrients. The normal leaf fruit ratio is 30 to 40:1. According to the principle of removing the weak, retaining the strong and evenly distributed, the first is to sparse too many and too dense flower buds; Then, when the young fruit of lemon tree is 1 cm large, drain some of the fruit; Finally, after physiological fruit drop, determine the fruit according to the leaf fruit ratio. It can also leave no weak branches and only one fruit for strong branches.
8. Diseases and pest control
Hot summer and dry autumn are two seasons with frequent occurrence of diseases and insect pests. The pests of lemon trees mainly include red spider, scale insect, aphid, etc. in the early stage of insect pests, you can use ant Chongling or whitefly to dilute and spray 800-1000 times. Lemon trees need to be sprayed once every half a month. The spraying time is about 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. and should not be sprayed at noon to avoid drug damage.
Lemon tree diseases mainly include lemon scab disease, ulcer disease, soot disease, etc. when preventing these diseases, it is suggested to trim the diseased branches and stems of lemon tree and the fruits and leaves infected by bacteria; In order to maximize prevention and treatment, it is generally recommended to use 70% methyltobuzin as 800-1000 times solution or 50% carbendazim soluble powder as 500-800 times solution.