1. Palm tree morphological character
Palm trees is an evergreen tree of the palm family, with a height of up to 7 meters; Dry cylindrical, leaf blade nearly round, petiole with fine round teeth on both sides, inflorescence thick, dioecious. Flowers yellow green, ovoid; The fruit is broad kidney shaped, with umbilicus, changes from yellow to light blue at maturity, has white powder, and the seed endosperm is horny. The palm tree flowering period is April and the fruiting period is December.
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Palm trees are planted in courtyards, roadsides and flower beds. They are tall and straight with verdant leaves. They are suitable for viewing in all seasons. Palm trees like warm and humid climate. They are extremely cold resistant and shade resistant. The finished products are extremely drought resistant, but they can't withstand too much temperature difference between day and night. Like warm and humid climate and light. Extremely cold resistant, slightly shade resistant.
It is suitable for neutral, calcareous or slightly acidic soil with good drainage, moist and fertile. It is resistant to light saline alkali, drought and moisture. Strong anti air pollution ability. Easy to wind down, slow growth.
2. Palm Trees Variety
2.1 Linear palm tree
Linear palm tree(ponytail palm tree, coarse palm tree, bamboo palm tree) the trunk of linear palm tree is tall, the internode is long, the leaf body is large, the petiole is long, the palm leaf color is dark green, the wrinkle apex is sharp, the leaf quality is thin, the palm leaf is thick and dense, the palm silk is thick and long, the structure is thin, and the top is combined into a belt and drooping. High yield and silk yield, less hairy feet, most suitable for rope making. However, the requirements for site conditions are high, the trunk is high, the internode is long, and it is inconvenient to strip. Palm tree's seed and fruit elliptic ovate, blue black when ripe.
2.2 Board palm tree
Board palm tree(dense palm tree) the trunk of board palm tree is coarse and fat, the tree potential is short, the internodes are dense, the palm leaf body is large, the petiole is coarse and fat, the palm leaf color is emerald green, the wrinkled tip is convex, and the palm leaf is thick. The palm skin is wide, the palm silk is short, the top of the palm silk is separated and slightly drooping, there are few hair feet, and the output is high. It is suitable for making coir raincoat. The requirements for site conditions are also high. The trunk is thick and fat, and the internode is short, which is convenient for stripping. The seed is solid, kidney shaped, yellowish brown when ripe.
2.3 Hairy palm tree
Hairy palm tree(fine palm tree) hairy palm tree has thick trunk, small leaf body, short petiole, light green leaf color, less width than board brown, less length than line palm tree, short and thin palm silk, crisp quality, many hairy feet, low yield and poor quality. General requirements for site conditions.
2.4 Mountain palm tree
Mountain palm tree is generally in the wild state, with short plants, dense dry details, small leaf body, short petiole, yellow green leaf color, narrow, short and thin brown pieces, short brown silk, low yield and poor quality. It can withstand dry barren soil and strong wind resistance.
3. Palm trees propagation method
Palm trees can be self sown and propagated in the origin. After the fruit is ripe in November, the ears are cut off, dried in the shade, threshed, picked and sown, or stored in high and dry places mixed with sand. The seeds should be sown in a palm tree pots with a proper amount of 70 ~ 750 kg of water before day and night. The seeds should be planted in a warm pot with a proper amount of water to accelerate germination. The seeds should be planted in a row with a proper amount of light before day and night. The germination rate should be 60 ~ 750 kg.
The plant spacing of palm tree pots sowing is 3 cm, the thickness of seed soil is 3 cm, and water is poured every 2 ~ 3 days; The other plant pot for palm is half covered and can germinate in about 40 days. Then remove the palm tree pots, weed and loosen the soil in time at the seedling stage, and strengthen the management of fertilizer and water. Palm trees grow slowly at the initial stage.
The seedling height in the first year is only 3 cm. The next year, the bed is reserved. In the third year, they are cultivated in large areas, and they are used for green for at least 7 years. Cultivation and management palm trees are planted for garden greening. It has strong adaptability. It can be planted as long as there is no low-lying ponding and 1 meter deep soil layer. It is better to plant them in moist and fertile neutral or slightly acidic soil.
Don't plant palm trees at the air outlet, otherwise the leaves will be fragmented. When raising seedlings, leave more fibrous roots. Small seedlings can have bare roots. Large seedlings need to carry soil balls. Planting should not be too deep, otherwise it is easy to cause rotten heart. When transplanting large seedlings, 1 / 2 of their leaves should be cut off to reduce water evaporation and improve the survival rate. When new leaves occur, if the old leaves droop, they should be cut off in time, and other management is extensive.
4. Palm planting technology
Cultivation soil requires good drainage and fertility. The root system of palm trees is shallow and has no taproot. It should not be too deep when planting. The hole surface should remain plate-shaped after planting.
Palm trees grow very slowly in their infancy and require appropriate shade. It takes about 3-5 years for its stem to grow out of the soil surface, 3-4 years to form palmately wrinkled normal leaves, and the production time is more than 8 years. At this time, the height of the palm tree is only 1.3-1.5 meters. Such a slow growth process is particularly obvious in the bare land without shade.
The same soil and variety grow more vigorously under the light intensity of 1 / 4 ~ 1 / 5 of full light than 1 / 2 of light intensity. Before putting into production, the annual growth process is characterized by growth period, small growth, and the fast-growing period is not obvious enough. At the young stage, this characteristic of palm trees is basically consistent among varieties.
In order to accelerate the growth of palm trees, long-term continuous management is required throughout the infancy stage. Especially from May to September when the new leaves grow in that year, because the height and diameter growth of palm trees are almost carried out at the same time, the initial growth mainly depends on the supply of photosynthetic products accumulated in the early stage.
4.1 Palm tree seed collection and storage
Seeds should be collected from 15 ~ 40 year old adult palm trees, and the seeds on young and old trees should not be used. The palm trees should be harvested from November to December when they are fully mature and gray. After removing the twigs and stems, the seeds are placed indoors, paved with a thickness of 12 ~ 15 cm, and dried for about 15 days. If the seeds are to be sown in spring, they should be mixed with wet sand, spread indoors, covered with a layer of straw and stored with moisture.
4.2 Preparation and sowing of palm trees
The place for nursery should be sandy loam or clay loam close to water source, less susceptible to drought and flood, and more fertile. Generally, 8 ~ 10 loads of rotten human manure and 20 kg of calcium superphosphate are applied every 7 square meters. After plowing, it is made into a border with a width of 1.4 meters, and the soil blocks on the border surface are crushed to seed. Before sowing, the seeds shall be soaked in plant ash water for 48 ~ 64 hours, the wax outside the peel and seeds shall be wiped off, and the sowing shall be washed.
Since the germination rate of palm tree seeds is generally only about 40%, it is necessary to sow enough seeds, 50 ~ 60kg per 667 square meters. Drill sowing, with a spacing of 20 ~ 25cm. After sowing, the palm tree seeds shall be mixed with ash dung and fine and fertile soil miscellaneous dung. It shall not be covered too thick, with a degree of 2 ~ 2.5cm. Then cover with a layer of rice (wheat) grass to prevent the soil from drying and hardening.
4.3 palm tree seedling management
When more than 80% of the seedlings emerge, remove the grass cover in the evening and spray the border surface with a watering can. Keep the large pot for palm soil moist during the seedling stage and remove weeds in time. One month after emergence, 2kg urea shall be used for watering every 7 square meters. After 3 ~ 4 months, when the seedlings grow 3 leaves, they can be planted. The planting soil should be loose and fertile, and 80 ~ 10 loads of rotten and cooked soil and miscellaneous feces should be applied every 667 square meters.
The row spacing of palm trees is 15 cm × 13 cm. After planting, it should be watered every early evening until it survives. A month later, start loosening the soil and topdressing. In the high temperature season, it is necessary to shade the seedlings with grass stalks. The seedling is about 60 cm high and can be transplanted into palm tree pots.
4.4 Palm tree transplanting
Choose the hillside with moist and fertile soil and good drainage, especially the vacant land such as farmland, land edge, house side, stream bank and roadside. Low lying land, heavy clay, dead yellow mud, over acid and alkali and shallow soil layer should not be planted.
For palm trees planted in patches, the ground weeds and shrubs shall be cut down in July and August of the year before repotting palm tree into large pot for palm tree, and the weeds and shrubs shall be buried in the soil by digging about 30 cm deep; When repotting palm tree into palm pots, smash the soil blocks, remove the stones and tree roots, dig holes for afforestation, the hole depth, length and width are 30 cm respectively, the row plant spacing is 17 meters and 1.3 meters, and about 30 plants are planted every 667 square meters.
For scattered palm trees, prepare the ground and dig holes at the transplanting place. The hole depth is 30 ~ 35 cm, the hole length and width are 40 cm respectively, and the plant spacing is 2 meters. The plant spacing for street trees should be more than 3 meters. Since the palm saplings have no taproot and the fibrous roots extend in all directions, some soil should be laid in the center of the hole bottom to make it higher than the surrounding area When planting, the seedling stem stands at the middle high place, the fibrous root extends obliquely to the surrounding low place, and then fill and step on it.
It should be noted that palm trees should not be planted too deep, and the seedling heart should be strictly prevented from being buried in the soil. If the hole is deep and the seedling is small, fill some rotten soil miscellaneous feces or fertile soil at the bottom of the hole. After transplanting, apply fertilizer every 2-3 years, and apply fire feces, garbage, soil miscellaneous feces, etc. Pay attention to drainage and debt prevention to prevent rotten roots from dying, and pay attention to timely remove lichen, lichen and knee vine on the trunk.
4.5 Potted palm trees
Palm trees can also be potted in the north, palm tree less than 6 years old can be potted, and palm tree 8 ~ 9 years old should be planted in large pot for palm tree. More than 20 years old, the growth trend is greatly reduced, and the old leaves are withered and yellow, which is easy to lose their ornamental value, so they should be eliminated. Water once a day in hot summer.
It is better to water less in spring and autumn. In October, it is necessary to enter the low-temperature greenhouse for wintering in the north and move out in May. Water once in more than 10 days. After 2 ~ 3 years, the survival rate of transplanting is high from March to April.
Remove some leaves before moving and shallow planting to avoid burying the growth point into the soil. After 5 years, the growth is accelerated, and then it can be planted in the field or in the palm tree flower pots. Select sandy loam for palm tree planting and apply sufficient organic fertilizer.
Palm tree is a plant with strong stress resistance, which is easy to cultivate and manage. Like to grow in moist, fertile and well drained neutral soil, but it can also grow well in acidic and slightly alkaline soil. It is more resistant to cold, and big trees can withstand low temperatures of about - 10 ℃.
Palm trees do not have strict requirements for light. They can grow well both in full day light and in shady rooms. It also has certain drought and moisture resistance, so the ornamental maintenance and management of small seedling potted plants can be slightly extensive. Palm tree also has strong resistance to toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride, so it can be widely planted or potted in indoor and outdoor greening in the factory area, which plays a good role in improving the environment and reducing pollution.
5. Potted palm tree maintenance
Palm tree is a symbol of nobility and elegance. As a potted plant, it can make the living room taste good. Whenever you see a palm tree in pot, it will remind you of the piano and palm trees in the lobby of a luxury hotel, so many people like to keep a basin of palm trees in the living room.
Although the price of palm trees is indeed high, we can planting palm trees in pots, which can be placed on the table or shelf to add some tropical style to the home. And some palm trees can grow into large green plants. How do we growing palms in pots?
5.1 Try to avoid repotting palm tree
When transplanting palm trees, the method is cumbersome. If the transplanting method is incorrect, it is easy to lead to poor growth of palm trees. Therefore, it is not recommended to transplant and change flower pot for palm tree as long as the root system is not blocked during the growth period. If you need to transplant and change large plant pots for palm trees, you can do it according to the following methods:
5.1.1 palm tree pots: when we change the big pot for palm tree, we need to use a large planter for palm tree with better water permeability and air permeability, large palm tree pots size such as 15 gallon pots, 20 gallon pots or 25 gallon pots. If the water permeability is not good, palm trees are prone to rotten roots.
5.1.2 soil: for the soil used for large palm pot change, we can use neutral, calcareous or slightly acidic soil with good drainage and fertility, or light saline alkali resistance. It can be seen that palm trees do not have high requirements for soil, but their water permeability must be good.
Ordinary soil has low sand content, low water permeability, low water retention quality and less air permeability than sandy soil. Therefore, palm tree in planter are most suitable for sandy soil. Although the quality of palm tree in pot for soil is not high, cultivating them in high-quality sandy soil can prolong their life and make them grow better.
5.1.3 transplanting and repotting:
① When transplanting palm trees, we need to take the palm trees out of the palm tree pots first, which can be watered in the previous day, and then gently knock the palm planter pots on the ground, and then turn over the large palm tree planter and pat the bottom of the palm pots to take it out. Remove some of the outside soil and leave protective soil.
② Add some rotten manure at the bottom of the best planter for palm tree. You can use rotten sheep manure or rotten compost. If there is no such manure, you can add some bacterial manure to the soil, which can also play the same role.
③ Fill the mixed soil into the best pot for palm tree and pour 2 / 3 of the palm tree pots.
④ Put some soil in the middle of the pots for palm plants to form the appearance of high in the middle and low around. Then put the palm tree in the middle of the palm pots, bury the soil and water it, so as to prevent the soil from being solid and lead to the failure of transplanting.
5.2 keep it indoors where the scattered light is
Palm trees in pots outdoors do not have high requirements for sunlight. In terms of temperature, they are cold resistant. The temperature around minus 10 ℃ can also survive well without affecting their health and prosperity. It can grow even in strong sunlight.
However, as a palm pot plant, palm trees need to create a good living environment for them, so that they can grow luxuriant, disease-free and harmless. Therefore, when we raise palm trees in the living room, we need to keep them in the place where the light is scattered indoors, especially in the high temperature in summer, to avoid strong sunlight.
5.3 Water and fertilizer palm trees in pots
Palm trees like warm and humid environment and are afraid of ponding, so we need to water properly during the growth period of palm trees. How to water it?
Watering is very important for palm tree in planter. Because palm trees like to live in wet soil very much, the growth rate of palm trees will be much slower in winter. At this time, they can be watered once every 10 days.
But in hot summer, you can water 4-6 times a week. Due to the high temperature, you need to increase the frequency of watering, or even once a day. But observe the drainage phenomenon. In any case, pay attention to the amount of watering to avoid improper drainage, which will rot the roots of palm trees. Palm tree in pot can be watered once a week.
Spring and summer belong to the vigorous growth period of palm trees. During this period, we need to make the palm tree pots soil moist without ponding, so as to make the palm trees grow more prosperous. In addition, ventilation management should be done well to prevent the sealing of high temperature and high humidity environment, which is prone to diseases and pests.
In the three seasons of spring, summer and autumn, we also need to spray plants regularly to improve air humidity. Secondly, we can clean palm trees and make palm leaves more clean and tidy. After the temperature decreases in autumn and winter, the growth of palm trees will not adapt.
We need to reduce the number of watering. If watering is needed, it is best to water at high temperature at noon, and the water temperature is consistent with the indoor temperature. For palm trees in vigorous growth period, thin liquid fertilizer can be applied every 30 days or so, which can make palm trees grow more vigorous and luxuriant. Generally, we can use nitrogen and potassium fertilizer, which can make the palm branches tall and straight and the leaves green.
5.4 Warm environment
Palm tree in planter like a warm environment. Don't have too large temperature difference in winter, otherwise it is unfavorable to the growth of palm trees and it is not easy to survive the winter smoothly. The temperature in winter shall not be lower than 10 ℃, otherwise frostbite is easy to occur.
5.5 Disease and pest control
Any plant may cause plant diseases under various untreated factors such as maintenance, temperature and climate; Palm trees can also cause diseases and pests for these reasons. Observe frequently. Once found, peel off the bark of the palm tree and remove the damaged parts in time to avoid expansion; Some birds can also cause the death of palm tree in pot, so we must strengthen conservation.
The disease mostly starts from the base of the petiole, first produces yellowish brown disease spots, and extends upward to the leaves along the petiole, and the diseased leaves gradually wither and die. The disease spots extend to the trunk to produce purplish brown disease spots, resulting in discoloration and necrosis of vascular bundles and decay of trunk; The leaves wither and the plants tend to die.
It is more serious if the young tissue decays at the stem tip of palm. Many white hyphae are common at the base of withered petioles and rotten leaves. After the upper part of the local area died, the underground root system soon decayed and died. The pathogen is pseudopenicillium.
5.5.1 disease control: timely remove rotten and seriously ill plants to reduce the source of infection. Peel palm tree timely and appropriately. Do not peel palm tree too late in autumn, too early or too much in spring. In spring, it is generally appropriate to peel brown before and after Qingming. It can be treated with 50% carbendazim 500 times liquid spray or curettage after smear. Spraying time: starting from late March or early April, spraying once every 10 ~ 15 days for 3 consecutive times.
5.5.2 pest control: pests mainly include longicorn beetles and scale insects, and the control method is the same as that of general tree species.
5.5.3 animal hazards: first, from mountain rats and voles eating brown hearts and brown seeds; Second, woodpeckers from insect eaters often have holes in the trunk because they want to peck open the bark and eat insects. After being invaded by rain, the trunk decays and withers.
5.5.4 climatic diseases: they mainly occur in the mountains on the western edge. This is due to the rot caused by the low temperature and rain in the flowering period, which makes the inflorescence buds unable to grow bracts and causes disease. It mainly affects the color of the palm tree and forms the so-called "flower shell palm tree".
Palm trees are green and luxuriant, with beautiful and vigorous momentum. They are green all year round and do not wither. It is most suitable for potted viewing. Simply repotting palm tree into the palm pots, and its ornamental degree is very high. There are many kinds of potted palm trees, each of which is very easy to manage.
Palm trees have a noble and elegant appearance and the characteristics of tropical plants. They are very suitable for raising in the living room, making the home more elegant and luxurious. It is easy for us to cultivate palm trees without changing indoor palm tree pot.
We keep them in places where light is scattered indoors. The soil is wet in spring and summer, and watering is controlled in winter. The indoor temperature in winter should not be less than 10 degrees, and the temperature difference should be smaller, so that the palm trees can grow luxuriant and our home taste is good.