Many people like to plant several pots of fruit trees on the balcony at home. They are not only beautiful and can be used as bonsai, but also produce delicious fruits in the fruiting period. It's good to plant grapes in grape planters on the balcony. Not only the yield is very high, but also grapes are suitable for all ages. Everyone in the family can eat them. How to growing grapes in containers? Today, let's introduce the planting methods of potted grapes.
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1. Different types of grapes
Grapes like a sunny and warm environment. Whether grapes can produce big and sweet fruits mainly depends on whether they get enough light during growth. Good photosynthesis can increase the quality of fruits. If the light is not enough, it will lead to only growing leaves without fruit, and even the leaves are in a state of bare growth. The hot sun in summer cannot be directly exposed to the sun, so it should be shaded to a certain extent.
In order to appreciate and observe potted grapes more closely, many people often put grapevine planters indoors. In fact, this practice is particularly bad for grape vine in pot! Potted grape is a plant that needs sunshine very much. Usually, we should sun it as much as possible. If you keep potted grapes in a dark place, either they can't bear fruit, or the fruit is small and sour.
Grape growing season is after spring, and start sprouting new buds early. Grapes are afraid of cold and heat. They can grow normally when the temperature is above 10 degrees Celsius. The temperature during flowering and fruiting is preferably between 25 degrees Celsius and 30 degrees Celsius. It can be put indoors when it is very hot in summer, and thermal insulation measures must be taken in winter.
The tolerance of grape to low temperature varies with different groups and organs, such as European subspecies and European and American hybrids. The buds can tolerate low temperature of - 3 to - 4 ℃ during germination; The young leaves and young leaves were frozen at - 1 ℃ and inflorescence at 0 ℃. During the dormancy period, the winter buds of mature new shoots of Eurasian varieties can withstand - 16 ℃ to - 17 ℃, and the perennial old vines suffer freezing injury at - 20 ℃.
The cold resistance of roots is weak. The roots of longan, rose fragrance, vineyard queen and other varieties in Eurasian Group suffer mild freezing injury at - 4 ℃ to - 5 ℃ and freeze to death in about two days at - 6 ℃. Using northeast mountain grape or Beida grape as Rootstock in northern China can improve the cold resistance of root system. Its root system can withstand low temperatures of - 16 ℃ and - 11 ℃, and the critical lethal temperatures are - 18 ℃ and - 14 ℃ respectively, which can reduce the thickness of cold proof soil in winter.
2. Best pots for grape vines
Grape plant pot is a container for potted grapes. It should not only be suitable for grape growth, but also be beautiful and firm, and the price is cheap. There are many kinds of flowerpots, which should be selected according to environmental conditions, main uses and tree size, mainly including tile pots, porcelain pots, purple sand pots, grape pots, etc. The specifications of grape vine planters are customarily determined by the diameter of the pot mouth.
The smallest diameter in the grape vine container is 9cm, which can be used for grape sowing and seedling cultivation. For fruit bearing vines, grape planters of more than 23 ~ 27cm should be used. A particularly large grapevine planters with a diameter of 40, 47 cm or more. The common plastic garden pots has a diameter of about 27cm. The volume of grape vine planters with various diameters varies greatly due to different height and shape. The volume is directly related to grape growth and yield.
Generally speaking, the roots of grape trees are relatively developed and deeply rooted. In addition, the plant growth is relatively vigorous, so the height is more important. If the plant is relatively small, it can be controlled by topping. The height can be about 40-50cm. If the plant is relatively high, if the grape plant pot is too small, it may lead to top heavy, and the plant is difficult to support normally. The height should be about 70-90cm.
The diameter of the grapevine planters is also determined by the plant. If the plant is thin, you can choose grape planters with a diameter of about 30 cm. If the vine itself is relatively strong and has a strong growth momentum, grape pots of about 50cm can be selected to ensure that the branches and leaves of the tree can be spread out. In addition to the size, we should also consider the material of the grape vine planters.
In order to ensure the normal growth of plants, it is necessary to select a suitable grapevine planter, preferably tile pot or purple sand pot, but the price of purple sand pot is relatively expensive, and the relative beauty of tile pot is not good. If you choose a beautiful plastic grapevine planter, the air permeability will be relatively poor. You can use a tile basin for the main body and put a plastic grape planter on the outside.
3. Best soil for grapes in pots
The so-called pot planting is a bit similar to "grape root restriction". The growth of root system can only be limited to the grapevine planters. Therefore, there must be a good soil growth condition. Best soil for grape vines can be conducive to the growth of root system! At this time, the general soil can not meet the requirements of potting soil, so it needs to be equipped according to the nature of grape pots soil!
Grape planters soil shall have good air permeability and drainage performance, good physical and chemical properties, rich in organic matter and nutrients, appropriate pH and no diseases and pests. The best soil for grapes is humus soil, which is generally required to be loose and fertile, and has good water permeability, air permeability and moisture retention. The ratio of general soil to fertilizer is 7:3. The soil for grapes can be prepared with general pastoral soil 40% + rotten leaf soil 40% + sandy soil 20%.
If fertilizer is used, organic fertilizer can be used. After smashing sheep manure and chicken manure, it can be mixed with the soil, and then the grapevine planters soil and fertilizer can be mixed and stirred evenly! Remember: rotten leaf soil is essential! The prepared soil for grapes in pots can be disinfected by spraying cloth with 0.1% formalin solution. 500ml per cubic pot soil can be used. If conditions permit, it can be disinfected by high-temperature steam.
4. Seedling raising
There are two common potted grape planting methods: branch cutting and seedling cultivation. Simply put, growing grapes from cuttings is to cut a strong branch from a mature grape vine, and then insert it into the soil to reproduce. One or two-year-old grafted seedlings with roots or cuttings with roots can be selected, which can be planted from February to March every year (nutrient bowl root seedlings can be planted from February to April to early May to June every year).
Seedlings for potted grapes can be cultivated by cutting, grafting and layering, or 1-3-year-old grape plants can be transplanted with soil mass before germination. The main source of seedling cultivation is to buy seedlings and plant them in grape vine planters. The survival rate of this method is relatively high.
5. Growing grapes in pots
Upper pot refers to planting grape seedlings into grape planters for the first time. Best time to plant grapes is spring and summer. Non germinated seedlings or cuttings can be planted in grapevine planters in early spring, or can be planted after germination and rooting. Semi mature seedlings that germinate and take root in the process of seedling raising can be put into the grape pots at any time.
Select a grape plant pot of appropriate size and cover it with tiles on the drainage hole at the bottom of the grape planters, so that the drainage hole can drain without soil leakage, and then fill it into a steamed bread shape. Place the seedlings in the center of the grapevine planters, lay out the root system, and then fill the soil, but it cannot be filled. Leave a watering place at the mouth of the grape vine planters. After water infiltration, fill and water until the bottom hole flows out.
For the planting depth, the interface of grafted seedlings shall be exposed to the surface, and the self rooted seedlings can be planted to the original depth of seedlings. If the newly planted seedlings are still relatively small and there are only one or two branches, it is not necessary to use a large grape planter at the beginning. Generally, the appearance of 25 cm is enough. However, as the grape seedlings grow up, we must replace the large grapevine planters in time, because its branches and leaves grow very fast, and its roots grow very much, especially developed, and many roots.
Grape is a light loving plant. Light is very important for growth. If the light is insufficient for a long time, it is difficult to blossom and bear fruit. After transplanting grape vines, the fabric pots can be raised in a bright place to maintain good light exposure, meet good growth needs and promote vigorous growth. During the growing period, move the 1 gallon pot outdoors to see the sunshine from time to time.
6. Water grapes
Grape plant in pot like a humid growth environment. When watering, follow the watering principle of "see dry and see wet". When the surface of the pot soil turns white, water it to keep the soil moist. The climate is different in different seasons, so the watering frequency is different, which can be adjusted according to the specific situation. Note that grapes do not like wet and waterlogged environment, which is easy to cause root rot, so they should be drained in time.
In early spring, sufficient water shall be poured once every 3 ~ 4 days during the germination period; Sufficient water shall be poured every 2-3 days from June to July; In December, sufficient water shall be poured for 1 ~ 2 times during dormancy period. When watering, the water temperature should be close to the pots soil temperature, and it is appropriate to water before 10:00 a.m. and after 4:00 p.m. Generally, it should be watered every 2 ~ 3 days in early spring.
With the increase of temperature and evaporation, it can be watered once every 1 ~ 2 days. The watering times should be appropriate to keep the soil of the grape planters moist. Grapes are very water loving plants. Watering is very important. Watering usually depends on the performance of pot soil and weather changes. In case of rainy season, frequent rain and high humidity, it is necessary to reduce the watering times and avoid ponding in the grapevine planters. Although grapes are water loving plants, watering too much will rot and hang up.
Because of dormancy in winter, water evaporation is slow, and watering needs to be reduced. Judging whether to water or not mainly depends on two aspects: first, observe the dryness and wetness of the pot soil. If the surface of the pot soil is not dry, there is no need to water temporarily. If the soil surface is gray and dry, you can water it; The second is to observe the leaves of grapes. If the leaves of grapes wilt and droop, it also means it's time to water.
In short, before watering, we must look at the dryness and wetness of the pot soil. Another thing is to look at the situation of the seedlings. For example, at noon, its leaves begin to wilt and droop, which means that it is already short of water. We should water it immediately. We should water it once or twice a day on a sunny day in summer. We should water it according to the actual situation. It's not difficult to grow grapes by yourself. Use a large grape plant pot, put enough base fertilizer, and bear fruit in two years!
7. Fertilizing grape vines
Grape tree in pot because of the limited volume of grape vine planters, the nutrients in the soil are limited. In order to make the grapes grow rapidly and bear more sweet fruits, it is very important to fertilize and supplement nutrients. First of all, when growing grape vines in pots, we should put some rotten organic fertilizer at the bottom of the grape planters, such as cow and sheep manure, bean cake fertilizer, chicken manure and so on. Remember to put it at the bottom of the grapevine planters, not in direct contact with the root system.
In the germination, flowering and fruit setting stages, sheep manure water was applied once with water, and ammonia, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer were sprayed on the leaves once. It is particularly necessary to spray zinc fertilizer on the leaves before and after flowering. The application of base fertilizer shall be combined with soil change, and the top dressing shall be applied in liquid state during the growth period to prevent root burning caused by excessive concentration.
For the potted seedlings that have not yet borne fruit, apply cake fertilizer and water every 7 ~ 10 days from the seedling height of 20cm (6 ~ 7 leaves). By the end of September, it is best to apply once every 5 days for those that have borne fruit. Foliar fertilizer spraying is effective and economical. The method is to spray 0.1% ~ 0.3% urea 2 ~ 3 times in the early stage of growth. Grape vine in pot like fertilizer. When putting them into the grapevine planters, apply an appropriate amount of base fertilizer to promote the slow release of fertility. Fertilizer should be applied regularly in the grape growth stage.
Nitrogen fertilizer is the main fertilizer in the growth stage. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizer can be applied appropriately in the flower and fruit stage. Fertilizer should be applied every ten days or so. After fertilization, water should be timely to promote the penetration of fertilizer. From the fruit expansion stage, spray 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution every 7 ~ 10 days for 3 ~ 4 times. Grapes are rich in nutrition and high in water content, and their growth depends greatly on fertilizer.
We apply different fertilizers according to different growth stages of grapes. Generally, it is normal to apply fertilizer once every 15 ~ 20 days. Don't apply fertilizer at the beginning of germination, and start applying nitrogen fertilizer slowly after germination. In order to provide the nutrition needed by more and more grapes, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer or compound fertilizer are used before flowering. Flower friends who are not sure about the amount of fertilizer can apply fertilizer after the fertilizer is diluted.
8. Repotting grape vines
When the grapes have been growing in the grape vine planters for about two years, the fertility of the original soil will be consumed. If the soil is not changed in time, it will be difficult for the grapes to bear fruit again. Therefore, we should change the soil for the grapes in time. If the grape planter is relatively small, we should also change it into a larger grapevine planter. Generally, grape vine planters are carried out before the beginning of the growth period, which will not affect the growth of plants.
The soil change period can be carried out in late autumn or before budding in spring. Firstly, pour water, then invert the grape planters, gently buckle the edge of the basin, pour out the whole root system and pot soil, and then loosen a part of the soil mass full of roots with bamboo chips, subtract a part of the surrounding root system, and about half the length of long roots can be subtracted, and then re plant it in the new culture soil.
The soil in the small 5 gallon pot is less and becomes crowded and can not grow, which also affects the growth of branches and leaves and the fruit hanging in the later stage. Therefore, it is necessary to replace the larger 15 gallon pot in time. The larger the plant, the larger the grapevine planters Generally, growing a grape vine in a pot on the balcony should preferably use grape pots of more than 30 cm and 40 cm.
9. Pruning grape vines
The vine is a vine that branches and grows many times a year. Under suitable conditions, it can grow indefinitely. If it does not prune and let it grow naturally, it will have lush branches and leaves, messy tree shape, closed crown, poor ventilation and light transmission, flowers and fruits fall in serious cases, slender branches and thin bud eyes. Not only the yield and quality of the current year will decline, but also the results of the next year will be affected.
Therefore, pruning must be carried out at any time to bind the new shoots, so that the branches and vines are evenly distributed on a certain frame surface, with good ventilation and light transmission, so as to improve photosynthesis. Pruning can also adjust nutrient distribution, improve tree potential, increase yield, improve quality and beautify tree shape.
Grapes in pots are mostly placed in front of indoor windows as bonsai viewing, so frame shaping is very important, which should not only be conducive to growth, but also beautiful. The forms adopted are determined according to the size of the grape vine pot, environmental conditions and personal hobbies, mainly including ball shape, disc shape, ladder shape, cluster dwarf shape, T-shaped vertical curtain line, etc.
The plant type of potted grape is more important. In order to achieve good viewing effect, the shape of the plant can be trimmed from time to time. In addition, because the growth of grapes requires a lot of nutrients, in order to prevent unnecessary nutrient loss, the branches, leaves or malformed fruits in poor growth state should also be pruned in time.
The roots and branches of vines are relatively developed and strong. Moreover, grapes in pots do not have the support of shelves and need strong branches. Therefore, it is most appropriate to use professional gardening scissors and fruit tree scissors for pruning, otherwise it will damage the scissors and branches.
Best time to prune grape vines:
9.1 pruning grape vines in winter.
Pruning grapes in winter is carried out after grape leaves fall and before budding. The main purpose of winter shearing is to reshape and adjust the yield. After cutting, combine with binding vine to make the tree shape regular, and the result is that the mother branches are evenly distributed on the frame surface. For newly planted saplings, no matter any shaping method is adopted, only 1 ~ 2 new vines are left in that year, and they will be cut according to the shaping needs in winter.
9.2 Pruning grape vines during growing season.
The new branches of grapes are in the growth state throughout the growing season. At the same time, there are auxiliary shoots growing in each leaf axil, resulting in too many and thick branches and leaves, poor ventilation and light transmission, which is not conducive to photosynthesis, but also affects the maturity of branches and berries. Therefore, it must be trimmed at any time. Pruning during growth includes bud wiping, branch fixing, new shoot coring, auxiliary shoot treatment, ear thinning and pruning, tendril removal and vine binding, etc.
9.3 root pruning.
The roots of potted grapes grow in the grape planters. They extend to the pot wall in a short time and grow in circles around the pot wall to form dense root clusters, which hinder the growth, so they should be pruned in time. Root cutting should be carried out at the same time as changing grapevine planters and soil, and the mature trees should be carried out every 2 ~ 3 years.
10. Pest control
Planting grapes in containers have less pests, and common diseases include downy mildew, white rot, anthrax, black pox and so on. It can be sprayed with stone sulfur mixture of 3 ~ 5 Baume degrees during grape dormancy, and 1:0.5:200 Bordeaux solution or 500 times compound carbendazim solution every 15 days after germination. Potted grapes are easy to be infected with white rot. you can use 800 times of Carbendazim and spray it every ten days for one month.
In spring, when the grape leaves and vines are put out, insert three bamboo poles or wooden sticks with a length of about 1.3m into the grape vine pot in a triangle, and bind the top with ropes to fix it firmly. With the growth of the main side vine of the grape, spiral along the tripod or bind upward (called jinlongpan Yuzhu frame), pay attention to keep a certain distance between the vine and the vine, so that each ear is exposed outside. It can be pulled to the ceiling or outdoor with rope on the balcony.
In addition, it should be noted that its vines will grow longer and longer, which requires us to insert branches or sticks into the soil to provide a traction for the climbing of grapes. When they grow most vigorously, we can also build a small shelf for them. Between September and October every year, we can taste the delicious grapes we grow by ourselves.